Law and Practise Relating To Exportation

1. Introduction

Export refers to the shipment of goods produced from one country to another. In a country of destination, an export becomes an import. Produce in this context refers to the manufacturing of goods from a country of origin. Export is a major component of international trade since it involves the inter-country exchange of goods and services. Methods of export include mail delivery, hand delivery, air transport, shipment, and electronic delivery.

Exports and imports are subject to regulation in both the country of export and the country of import. Ordinarily, customs authorities are established to regulate exports and imports. Minerals being goods of the highest value are highly regulated for purposes of ensuring revenue collection and control of the mining industry by the country of origin.

2. Export Of Minerals From Tanzania

The exportation of minerals in Tanzania is governed by the provisions of the Mining Act, CAP.123 R.E.2018 (‘the Act’) and the Mining (Mineral Trading) Regulations, 2018 (‘the Regulations’). Any person with an interest to export minerals in Tanzania has to abide by the conditions stipulated under the Act and Regulations. This article provides guidelines and prerequisites for the exportation of minerals in Tanzania in line with the conditions laid down under the Act and Regulations.

Law and Practise Relating To Exportation

3. Right To Export Minerals And Their Categories

The right to export minerals is granted to the following categories of mineral rights holders:

3.1 Holders of Mining Rights in Tanzania

Holders of Special Mining Licenses, Mining Licenses, Primary Mining Licenses, Processing Licenses, Smelting License,s And Refining License have the right to trade or dispose of their mineral products; including, by way of export.

3.2 Licensed Minerals Dealers and Brokers

On the other hand, holders of Dealer Licenses have the right to buy, acquire, sell, or Export minerals (Section 76) Therefore, the right to export minerals are granted to holders of mineral rights and Licensed Dealers. A broker license, on the other, does not authorize the holder to export any mineral or minerals (.Section 83 of the Act).

3.3 Non-Residents on Special Permits

Further to the mineral rights holders and Dealers stated above, non-residents are authorized to export minerals subject to the conditions provided under Regulation 16 of the Regulations. A special export permit is granted to non-residents to export minerals from Tanzania.

A non-resident with a tourist visa is permitted to export minerals after paying the required export permit fee for minerals not exceeding USD 1,000(See Regulation 16(2)). The application fee is USD 200 for minerals worthy of USD 1,000 but if the value of minerals is above USD 1000 the amount fee payable is USD 2,000. The major limitation is that a non-resident shall not be permitted to export minerals more than twice a year.

Furthermore, non-residents may export minerals purchased at the Gem Trade Fair (Regulation 17). Export permit for minerals from Gem Trade Fair is granted after payment of requisite fees and royalties.

4. Royalty on Exportation of Minerals

Every authorized miner shall pay to the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania a royalty on the gross value of minerals produced under his license at the following rate;

(a) In the case of uranium, five per centum; (5%)

(b) In the case of gemstones and diamonds, six per centum (6%);

(c) In the case of metallic minerals such as copper, gold, silver, and platinum group minerals, six per centum (6%);

(d) In the case of the gem, one per centum (1%); and

(e) In the case of other minerals, including building materials, salt, all minerals within the industrial minerals group, three per centum (3%)

Where an authorized miner of any mineral elects to sell his product to a licensed dealer or licensed broker, the royalties of such minerals shall be paid by the licensed dealer or broker by the provisions of the Mining Act.

Law and Practise Relating To Exportation

5. Online Mining Cadastre Transactional Portal

This portal is made for the registration of mineral right holders of Division A, B, C, and D. It is through this forum, and upon being registered on it, the mineral right holders can maintain their existing rights, and submit reports and production returns electronically.  To use the portal, one has to register in person through the Head office of the Ministry for Divisions A and B but Divisions C and D can register through regional offices.

The goal of this portal is to provide an electronic platform for all stakeholders in the mining sector in Tanzania to engage directly with the Ministry of Energy and Minerals

6. Precautionary issues for the export of minerals

Like any other business, the exportation of minerals in Tanzania involves some risks; one of them is dealing with fraudsters. MAK Africa Legal has noted that on many occasions foreigners engage in mineral export transactions without seeking legal guidance and consulting the appropriate authorities. Consequently, some foreigners end up being exposed to a risk of fraud by certain impostors without trading licenses. As a firm dealing with Mining Laws and advising on the industry generally, MAK Africa Legal has in some cases been engaged in forgery cases, where fake minerals were sold to foreigners by conmen.

Our Mining Law team at MAK Africa Legal recommends that foreigners need to conduct due diligence as to whether the people involved in the mineral transaction possess the proper and genuine licenses required. It is therefore important to verify whether a respective dealer possesses the required permit and licenses to deal with the mining business. Above all, foreigners are advised to seek local legal counsel before concluding any transaction with local mineral dealers.

7. Conclusion

Exportation of minerals from Tanzanian is subject to conditions entrenched in the Act and Regulations as stipulated above. It is an offense for any person, other than the mineral right holder or licensed dealer to sell or dispose of minerals (See Section 18(2) of the Act). An offense for trading in minerals without a valid permit or license is punishable by a fine not exceeding ten million shillings or imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years or both fine and imprisonment (See Section 18(3) of the Act).

MAK Africa Legal affirms that as the wealth of minerals in Tanzania is vast, so is the access to the right of dealing in them. Both locals and foreigners can explore, prospect, mine, and deal (including export) with minerals. The rights to do so are steadfast and expressed within the law.

Given the above, it is clear that any person intending to trade in the export of minerals from Tanzania has to abide by the laws and regulations. Of proper mention is the call on non-residents who are enjoined to conduct due diligence and seek proper legal advice before concluding any transaction relating to minerals. This shall minimize the risks of being schemed by unscrupulous traders.

Important Notice:

This publication has been prepared for general guidance on matters of interest only and does not constitute professional advice. You should not act upon the information contained in this publication without obtaining specific professional advice. No representation or warranty (express or implied) is given as to the accuracy or completeness of the information contained in this publication, and, to the extent permitted by law, MAK Africa Legal its members, employees, and agents do not accept or assume any liability, responsibility or duty of care for any consequences of you or anyone else acting, or refraining to act, in reliance on the information contained in this publication or for any decision based on it.

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